1653 / AGRA, INDIA /SHAH JAHAN /TOMB
Sheathed in shimmering white marble and standing at the door of a long reflecting pool, the Taj Mahal (crown palace)represents the pinnacle of Mughal architecture. Commissioned by Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favourite wife, Mumtaz-i-Mahal, this fine tomb took 20000 workers 22 years to build. Its beauty lies in its calm semnity and the marble's subtle colours as it reflects the changing sky above.
Built on a terrace beside the Jamuna River, the Taj Mahal complex is enclosed by a high wall with broad octagonal pavilion at each corner that can be seen from the emperor's palace in the Agra Fort. The tomb itself rises on a high red sandstone platform, 57m (187ft) square, its corners marked by four slender 47m (15411) high minarets. These emphasize the considered proportions of the tear-shaped, double shelled central dome the inner shell of which is 24m (79ft) high with a diameter of 18m (59ft). The dome, whose shape is derived from both Hindu temple design and Persian Timur architecture, is flanked by four smaller domed chattris (roof pavilions).
The plan is a rationalization of Delhi's Humayun Tomb : an octagonal chamber surrounded by a series of interlocking
corridors, with a subsidiary octagonal chamber at each junction. The beautiful, rather pure elevations have little decoration. The interior of the building is dimly lit through delicate marble lattices. The bodies of the emperor and his wife remain in a vault below the building. The Taj Mahal does not sit, as convention at the time dictated, at the centre of its surrounding garden, but to the back of it, with the rear elevation facing the river. According to one story, it overlooks the Jamuna because the emperor had planned to build a corresponding tomb, in black marble, on the other bank.
تاج محل با سنگ مرمر سفید درخشان ، نمایانگر اوج معماری مغول است. تاج محل توسط شاه جهان به یاد همسر مورد علاقه خود ممتاز محل ، به ساخت 20000 کارگر 22 سال طول كشید. زیبایی آن در آرامش و رنگهای ظریف مرمر است زیرا نشانگر آسمان در حال تغییر است.